What is a Heat Exchanger?

Heat exchangers are used in both heating and cooling processes to transfer heat expended from one process or place for use in another. They enable the thermal energy from a liquid or gas to pass to another liquid or gas without the two having to come into direct contact. Common everyday examples include domestic radiators…

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Understanding Digestate

WHAT IS DIGESTATE? Digestate is the material that remaining after the anaerobic digestion of a biodegradable feedstock such as wastewater sludge, food waste, animal waste or other organic waste products.  Anaerobic Digestion (AD) produces two main products: the fibrous digestate that comprises of both solid and liquid forms, and the naturally occurring biogas that is emitted…

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Top tips for specific types of heat exchanger fouling

When handling difficult materials, such as sewage sludge or corrosive chemicals, heat exchangers can be particularly susceptible to fouling. Having previously looked at the general issue and different types of fouling which may be experienced, it is also useful to look at some of the specific fouling situations encountered by our engineering teams. Fouling can…

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ISO 9001 Quality Assurance Accreditation

QUALITY POLICY The management team of HRS Heat Exchangers (HRS) is committed and responsible for establishing, implementing and maintaining the Quality Management System to ensure customer satisfaction, employee participation and continuous company development. Every HRS Employee is committed to provide the highest standard of quality on all of our products and services to ensure both…

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Computational Fluid Dynamics in Heat Exchanger Design and Analysis

Recently we were approached by a customer that had several condensers installed which were giving performance problems. The condensers simply did not perform to their capacity. The customer was worried that the problem did not lie in the condenser design but in the product inlet header. The suspicion was that the product flow into the…

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Advantages of Corrugated Tubes

Introduction A large number of industries use processes in which heat is transferred between different fluids (or gases). The basic principle of heat transfer is extremely simple: two fluids at different temperatures are placed in contact with a conductive barrier (the tube wall) and heat is transferred from the hotter fluid to the colder fluid…

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Aseptic Filling Fundamentals

General One of the things needed to produce a pasteurised product with a long life which can be distributed at ambient temperature is aseptic packaging. This technology differs from conventional canning techniques in that the containers are pre-sterilised and then filled with cold product in a cold environment in commercially sterile conditions, before being closed…

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Comparison of Laminar and Turbulent Flow

Heat Transfer Flow Regimes One of the important factors controlling heat transfer is the resistance to heat flow through the various “layers” that form the barrier between the two fluids. The driving force for heat transfer is the difference in temperature levels between the hot and cold fluids, the greater the difference the higher the rate…

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Fouling Factors in Heat Exchangers

The fouling factors to be used in the design of heat exchangers are normally specified by the client based on their experience of running the plant or process. If uncontrolled, levels of fouling can negate any benefits produced by careful heat exchanger design. The fouling factor represents the theoretical resistance to heat flow due to…

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Heat Transfer Fundamentals

Introduction As noted here, the basic principle of heat transfer is extremely simple, two fluids at different temperatures are placed in contact with a conductive barrier (the tube wall) and heat is transferred from the hotter fluid to the colder fluid until they reach the same temperature level. In industrial processes, this is carried out…

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How to Design a Tubular Heat Exchanger?

How to Design a Tubular Heat Exchanger At HRS Heat Exchangers we design tubular heat exchangers every day. This section provides an overview of the process. Step 1: Analysing the Application When we first receive an enquiry for a heat exchanger, the first step is to analyse the application. Is it a food industry application?…

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Thermal Treatment in Food Industry

The thermal treatment of food is necessary in order to: Reduce the microbiological flora present in the food Avoid alterations produced in the food by non-pathogenic micro-organisms Apply the appropriate amount of heating/cooling to each of the foods in question The four principal objectives of the application of thermal treatment are: Destroy micro-organisms which could…

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Types of Packaging for Foods and Beverages

Various types of aseptic packaging have been developed over the years as a result of different demands. This page highlights some of the key steps in the evolution of modern food packaging. Cans Some estimates suggest canned good account for up to 90% of some markets, although share is being lost to more modern forms…

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Acrylamide Reduction in Industrial Food

Acrylamide, also known as 2-propenamide or acrylic amide, is a chemical substance has a role in making polyacrylamide, which in turn is used in inks, in flocculants for water treatment, in cement production and the production of plastics. The World Health Organisation (WHO) has established a maximum level for drinking water of 0.5 mg/litre and…

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Pressure Equipment Directive 2016/68/EU Categorisation

Introduction to 2016/68/EU – Pressure Equipment Directive (Formerly known as Directive 97/23/EC)  All equipment with a maximum allowable pressure greater than 0.5 Bar above atmospheric pressure must be assessed in accordance with the European Pressure Equipment Directive 2014/68/EU and if necessary designed and manufactured in accordance with the requirements contained within the Directive. This equipment can…

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